Author: Janice Young

Janice Young is a philanthropist and you can be a better judge of this if you visit his social networking platforms that have been colored with attractive images of the work that he is doing in the society. Well apart from that Janice is passionate about photography and even volunteers to teach the youngsters how to take the best photos and to use the talent to attract some income. The purpose of the lens is mostly understood by novice camera users, so to offer guidance Janice came up with a comprehensive guide to make the work of selecting the best camera lens easy. Janice spends most of his time in charitable organizations.

Invisible Evidence: Building a Case for Spirit Photography

What is spirit photography?

In his 1960 work The Encyclopaedia of Occultism, Lewis Spence describes spirit photography as "The production of photographs on which alleged spirit-forms are visible. When the plate is developed there appears, in addition to the likeness of the sitter, a shape resembling more or less distinctly the human form, which at the moment of exposure was imperceptible to normal vision."(pg. 379) Obviously, Spence was speaking of spirit photography in the 1800s, when an early camera called a "Daguerreotype" used tin plates bathed in various chemicals to produce still images of a posed subject. The progression of photographic technology since the 1800s has demanded that we broaden this definition to incorporate more modern methods of capturing ghost images, including the use of infrared films, stop-motion cameras, and digital video. Generally speaking, spirit photography is the attempt to capture on a photographic medium those things that cannot be observed with the naked eye, such as ghosts, spirits, and so on. It has only been in recent years that spirit photography has gained some credibility in the scientific community as a prospective tool for serious paranormal investigation.

Spirit Photography: A Brief History

Though alleged photographs of ghosts and spirits had been taken before the 1860s, it was an American photographer and engraver, William H. Mumler of Boston, who brought spirit photography to the public ("Occultism and Photography", Cheroux, Oxford Photography Encyclopedia). In 1862, Mumler offered to photograph clients in the company of one or more "ghosts". Though the ghosts would be invisible at the time the picture was taken, they would appear later during the development process. One of Mumler's most famous photographs was a portrait of Mary Todd Lincoln, the wife of assassinated president Abraham Lincoln. The alleged spirit of Abraham Lincoln can clearly be seen over the subject's shoulder (illus. 1). The popularity of the Spiritualism movement in America was largely to blame for Mumler's success, though he was suspected of forgery and fraud. Mumler resurfaced in New York in 1869, and in 1872 authorities attempted to prosecute him. Although many of his photographs were exposed as hoaxes, Mumler was acquitted of fraud due to a lack of evidence.

By this time, the practice of spirit photography had spread to England. Two popular spiritualist mediums, Mr. Samuel Guppy and his wife, Agnes Guppy-Volkert, had been attempting to duplicate Mumler's procedures on their own without success. At length, they called in a professional photographer, Frederick Hudson, for assistance. Hudson was successful in producing spirit photographs, and the ease of his success attracted the attention of noted skeptics and scientists including Trail Taylor, the editor of the British Journal of Photography ("Spirit Photography", online Occultism and Parapsychology Encyclopedia, Answers.com). Hudson reportedly allowed skeptics to view and document his entire photographing and developing processes, but no fraud could be determined. Other spirit photographers soon followed, including Edouard Jean Buguet of France, who appeared in London in 1874 and was ultimately tried and convicted of fraud by the French government. In spite of these setbacks, spirit photography continued to be popular, especially in the years immediately following the first world war. Fraud was rampant, attracting the attention of famous celebrities including former supporter P. T. Barnum and the illusionist Harry Houdini, who began a well-publicized personal crusade against fraud in spirit photography in the 1920s. He published the results of his investigations in the book A Magician Among the Spirits in 1924 (John Mulholland, "Houdini, Harry", World Book Encyclopedia, 1966).

Spirit Photography and the American Spiritualism Movement

Noting the impact of American spiritualism on the history of spirit …

Computer Review: The Dell Inspiron E1505

As the owner of a small business I know that my company's success is largely determined by how well my computer performs. Over the last five years I have gone through three different computers including two desktops and one notebook. The last computer that I purchased was my Dell Inspiron E1505. I selected this particular notebook because I needed a computer that was portable, and I needed a computer that was capable of handling multi-media presentations. I found these features in my Inspiron.

Specification for the Dell Inspiron E1505

While the basic specifications for this model are probably adequate to meet most people's needs, I needed to customize my computer so that it would be able to handle animation software and video editing software. I upgraded to the highest processing speed of 2.16GHz, I doubled the memory, and I added a wireless card. I also upgraded the software package to include Microsoft Office and the full version of Adobe Acrobat. In addition to the upgrades that I made to my computer Dell also included: a battery, an AC adapter, Photoshop, and a variety of other software programs.

My Experience with the Dell Inspiron E1505

The first thing that I noticed when I first set up my computer is that the picture clarity was superb. I also enjoyed the fact that I could watch a DVD on my computer while working on a data file. The Bluetooth capabilities of the Inspiron E1505 are also fantastic. I think that the wireless keyboard and mouse make this notebook a lot easier to use, especially for word processing.

While I enjoyed all of the perks offered by the Dell Inspiron E1505, I have had a few problems with my machine. The first problem is that it seems to run slower than a 2.16 GHz machine should run. Now this observation could be due to my limited experience working with a notebook, and it could also be due to the animation software that I have loaded on my machine. The second problem that I had was with the Bluetooth wireless drivers. As a result of this problem I have not been able to use my Bluetooth mouse, however, the Bluetooth keyboard works fine. This problem could be a problem with the mouse instead of a problem that the notebook has.

Price

The Dell Inspiron E1505 retails for about $949. However, if you wait for one of Dell's great sales you can save $200 or more off the list price. I bought mine during a special promotion and actually saved about $400 off the entire package. If you have good credit you can also finance your notebook for about $23 per month. Dell also offers special discounts for small businesses, CPAs, teachers, and other professionals.

If you are interested in accessories for your computer then Dell offers a great selection of cameras, cases, tablets, and printers. Dell even selects several prized accessories for your machine and they offer you a great discount on these accessories if you order them when you order your computer. If you don't see what you want on your check out pages then you can also shop at the Dell store. Here you will find wireless devises, tablets, and other high quality digital accessories.…

Product Review: E-Machines Computers

Computers. Is that all there is to say? Does everyone already know how much they can do? Do you cringe at all the possibilities out there with this power at your fingertips? Boy I do. I bought an E-Machines. To the tune of $600 I got 120 GB hard drive, 512 MB RAM, a DVD+/-RW double layer burner, and a whole world of interest to write about, browse about, connect with, and share. I can email family and friends who are 875 miles away, listen to them perform, goof off, and share pictures of everything.

But you can do that too can't you? That's great. Now, what do you do about viruses? Trojans? I can tell you what I did, computer savvy as I am. I called E-Machines 23-hour-7 days a week tech support. And they DID help. Step by step, over the phone, and nothing has been more appreciated in this matter than that. My membership came with the purchase of my computer, as I am sure your tech support service has also.

Big Fix is incorporated with this as well. And naturally, Microsoft has their updates going too. But how many times have you called one of them 2 o'clock in the a.m. and gotten your problem fixed? I mean fixed, not patched. And will replace any faulty equipment, should there be any, free of charge and free of shipping. THAT was nice of them I would say. A real person, first call.

So, I am not really writing about the internet, or all the cool or unsavory things you can do with one, but about the brand of affordable technology, and my experiences with this company and their product. E-Machines went on sale at Wal-Mart for close to $1,000. That was with only 80GB of hard drive. Then newer stuff came out, and the market opened up for bigger, better, faster and naturally companies lowered their prices to compete.

Folks, you gotta take it from me. Sometimes cheaper, with a plan, can be beneficial for the time being. Even rewarding. Look at me, making money with mine. You can't beat that. You can even buy their line of CD-ROM protection software, and eliminate the need of calling them a few more times than necessary. They will keep you on their subscription plan for the first year, and I remember thinking it was quite affordable to renew it if I had a job at the time it ran out. Certainly cheaper than renewing Norton, which I also recommend.

If this computer crashed, burnt, and I was unable to use it anymore, and I went to Wal-Mart and saw this product on the shelf, I would purchase it again. Over any other they advertised. The name is all I need. I trust them completely.…

Photoshop Buttons – Hot Pink Rounded Rectangle Button

In this Photoshop Tutorial I will show you how to create the Hot Pink Rounded Rectangle Button in my image. Please see the image that I have provided to see the ending results. I will write the first part of this tutorial for the Photoshop beginners. I will write the second part of this tutorial for the advance Photoshop users. If you are an advance user, please skip down to the advance part of this tutorial.

How to Create a Hot Pink Rounded Rectangle Button in Photoshop for Beginners

Step 1 – Creating a New Canvas
Create a new canvas 350 pixels by 350 pixels. to the color that you need and click OK.

Step 2 – Creating a New Layer
Locate your Layers Panel on your screen. Press F7 on your keyboard if you do not see your Layers Panel. Click the icon in the bottom of the Layers Panel that looks like a sheet of paper with the corner curled up, to create a new layer.

Step 3 – Rounded Rectangle Tool
Select your Rounded Rectangle Tool from your toolbar. Set the radius to 10px. The radius is located at the top of your Photoshop window. Draw your button on your canvas. You can draw your button any size that you want.

Step 4 – Rasterizng the Layer
Right click on the Shape Layer in your Layers Panel and click Rasterize Layer from the pop up menu. Rasterizing the layer will make the edges of the button smooth.

Step 5 – Blending Options
Right click on that same layer again and click Blending Options from the pop up menu. Apply the following effects to your button in the Blending Options window. Make sure that you click on the word. If you just check the box for that effect, you will not see the options for that effect.

Bevel and Emboss

Style – inner bevel
Technique – smooth
Depth – 71
Direction – up
Size – 6
Soften – 0
Angle – 100
Use Global Light – unchecked
Attitude – 75
Gloss Contour – linear
Anti-aliased – unchecked
Highlight Mode – screen
Color – white
Opacity – 75
Shadow Mode – normal
Color – black
Opacity – 75

Color Overlay

Blend mode – normal
Color – fd02c5
Opacity 100

Stroke

Size – 1
Position – outside
Blend Mode – normal
Opacity – 100
Fill Type – color
Color – 9b0776

Click OK on the Blending Options window.

If you have any problems with this Photoshop Tutorial, please feel free to contact me using the contact button at the top of this page.

How to Create a Hot Pink Rounded Rectangle Button in Photoshop for the Advance

Step 1 – Create a new canvas 350px by 350px.

Step 2 – Create a new layer.

Step 3 – Select your Rounded Rectangle Tool and change the Radius to 10px.

Step 4 – Draw your button.

Step 5 – Rasterize your button layer.

Step 6 – Open your Blending Options for the button layer and apply the following effects.

Bevel and Emboss

Style – inner bevel
Technique – smooth
Depth – 71
Direction – up
Size – 6
Soften – 0
Angle – 100
Use Global Light – unchecked
Attitude – 75
Gloss Contour – linear
Anti-aliased – unchecked
Highlight Mode – screen
Color – white
Opacity – 75
Shadow Mode – normal
Color – black
Opacity – 75

Color Overlay

Blend mode – normal
Color – fd02c5
Opacity 100

Stroke

Size – 1
Position – outside
Blend Mode – normal
Opacity – 100
Fill Type – color
Color – 9b0776

Step …

Western Massachusetts Photographer: Jennifer Rose Photography

http://www.jenniferrosephotography.org

My story is simple. After the birth of my twin daughters, I began to realize that each moment is truly precious. Just like snowflakes, no two moments are alike. I want to capture my children's laughter, tears, silly moments, and awkward stages. I cannot allow for their memories to be forgotten from one year to the next. Photography gives us the gift to journey back to a moment and to reflect on our feelings, emotions, and life experiences. Children's portraiture allows for us to revisit the meaning of innocence and true beauty.

I have been mentored by a professional documentary wedding photographer as well as various contemporary children's portraiture artists. In addition, I have taken courses offered by Matthew Lee Kees to develop my photography skills. I am constantly learning more and more about photography through exploration and experience. The artwork presented by Western Massachusetts Photographer Robert Charles (Robert Charles Photography) has been a true inspiration to me.

As a mother and educator, I am gentle with children and strive to have them feel relaxed in my presence. Allowing the children to come to my portrait session to dance in their mismatched polka-dotted outfits or to dig their new dump trucks into Earth's soil is what this all about. The beauty of each child will be captured by their very essence. The artwork will hold true to each child's spirit and individuality.

Located in Western Massachusetts, I am enjoying the opportunity to meet and photograph many people in Berkshire County, Franklin County, Hampshire County, and Hampden County. The beauty that surrounds us here in Western Massachusetts is devine.

You are like a rose.
Such a beautiful creation.

Your Life is Beautiful.
It Must be Remembered.…

Photography: Photo Red Eye Removal & Reduction Tips

Red eye is a common problem experienced by photographers when taking photos of other people. It causes the subject(s) of the photo to appear as if they have red eyes, and is caused by using a direct flash. Here are some tips on how to prevent or remove it:

PREVENTING RED EYE

Avoid Using A Flash: If possible, try to provide sufficient lighting by turning on ceiling lights, moving into a brighter area, opening curtains, or other methods which eliminate the need to use a flash. If your camera automatically fires the flash for all photographs, try removing its battery before taking the photo. It may be impossible not to use the flash with some disposables. Using black & white film will also prevent this problem.

Different Camera: If you frequently take photos of people, it may be worthwhile to invest in a camera with "red eye reduction", especially if your current camera has a built-in flash. This probably won't prevent red eye in every situation, but it will help. Some cameras with a red eye reduction feature are available for less than $20, such as the Minolta AF101R, Polaroid 252 BV, and Olympus Trip XB40 AF. Avoid using color disposables, as they tend to be more prone to creating a red eye effect.

Different Flash: If your camera accepts external flash units, considering buying a "bounce flash" ; a type of flash which provides indirect lighting by "bouncing" the flash off the ceiling, reducing the chance of red eye as compared to direct flash units. If there is no ceiling, you can adjust the bounce flash to point directly ahead as your regular flash does. You can probably find one of these at a local camera shop or on eBay.com, where some units can be purchased for under $25, such as the Rokinon 2000, Vivitar 273, or Weston W-18. Bounce flashes tend to have more settings than regular direct flash units, so you may want to find one which includes the instruction manual. They are also generally somewhat larger and may require one or two more batteries than your current flash does.

Special Processing: Some more expensive photo processing services can help remove red eye and other unwanted effects when your photographs are initially developed. For example, the website of Kodak's Perfect Touch processing service indicates that it "detects and reduces red eye", along with reducing "washed-out" areas and other problems. The Rite Aid pharmacy chain offers (as of 03/16/07) Perfect Touch processing for $9.99, including 24-to-27 35mm 4" prints and a Kodak Picture CD.

REMOVING RED EYE FROM A PHOTOGRAPH

Red Eye Removal Pens: A type of pen specially-designed for removing red eye from photo prints can be purchased for about $3-5. They are available from a number of different brand names, including Fiskars, Creative Memories, and Pioneer. These pens usually have a warning not to use them on Polaroid instant photos. "Pet eye" pens are also available for removing a similar effect which sometimes occurs when photographing animals with a flash.

Software: Some types of computer imagery software, such as Adobe Photoshop, are capable of red eye reduction from digital photos or photos you have on CD. The latest version (CS2) of Photoshop has a price of $649 (or $169 for an upgrade) on Adobe's website, and its system requirements include 320MB of RAM/memory, a recent version of Windows or Mac OS X, and a high display resolution. A free photo retouching program called GIMP is available for some versions of Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux/Unix, which can be downloaded online. If you don't want to …

What lenses can be adapted to Nikon?

Buying a lens for your camera isn’t a very easy task to accomplish. You need to ensure that you choose the right lens that will work with your camera. The easiest way to know what lenses can be adapted to Nikon is to check the indicators on lens mount at the front of your camera.

Nikon lenses are known for their dependability, excellent quality, and durability, but they come with a steep price tag so you might consider using a cheaper lens from another company to use on the front of your SLR camera. Such lenses are readily available and you can install them directly on a Nikon body without using an adapter ring. You can interchange different Nikon lenses, but a particular lens may not be necessarily compatible with the rest of the Nikon bodies.

Different kinds of lenses that can adapt to Nikon

The new Nikon lens may be too expensive if you’re just beginning, but you can get some more affordable Nikon lenses that you can choose from. These lenses are under a few categories which can help you to choose the kind lens you need.

Macro lens

These lenses bring objects very much closer to you and have a better optical focus that gives you crystal clear close-ups. Regular lenses focus quite close, but not enough to fill the frame. Some lenses claim to have a macro lens that only have a maximum magnification ratio of 0.2x-0.5x which isn’t good for this type of lens. A macro lens should give you 1.0x magnification which means he object will practically fill up your entire camera frame. You can use an FX macro lens with a DX format body since the 1.5x crop factor will not be a problem so you will have a lens that can work with a full-frame camera when you decide to upgrade.

Kit lenses

They’re better quality lenses with a longer zoom range or a wider constant aperture. They’re a good all-round lens designed to be affordable and compact. When you pair these kit lens with the FX and DX format DSLR bodies, you get pretty good image quality, performance, and you save a lot when you buy the camera with a compatible lens as a package. However, these lens has limitations in maximum aperture, zoom range, and overall quality, and since you’re going to be using this lens almost every day for your photography, it would be a good idea to get a better one.

Other standard zooms may have a constant and faster aperture of f/2.8 for faster shutter speeds even in poor light and better background separation. You can also opt for a standard zoom that has a longer focal range that will be able to handle different shooting situations. You should get a lens that matches your camera’s sensor size, so if you have a DX format or the full-frame Nikon, you should get a DX or an FX standard zooms respectively. However, don’t use a FX standard full-frame zoom on a DX format Nikon because the lens focal length will be longer and your angle of view won’t be wide enough.

Telephoto zoom

These are an obvious choice for most people who are interested in taking wildlife and sports photography or when you can’t get close enough to your object. If you have a kit lens and a Nikon DSLR, you can add a telephoto zoom which is the best Nikon lens if you’re just a beginner. To get quality telephotos, it’s best to have a full-frame lens even if your camera is a Nikon DSLR with a …

Seven Magnificent Cameras to Save Film Photography

Digital photography has made awesome picture taking capabilities available to everyone. In January 2012, one of the world's premiere film companies, Kodak, declared bankruptcy. Ironically, Kodak's film division remains a profitable part of the company. Film still has a place in the arts and many hearts. Enthusiasts still enjoy the magic of film chemistry and the satisfying click of a real mechanical shutter. If film is to have a future, these seven cameras may be its salvation.

  1.  Lomography 35mm Film Cameras – It's unfair to lump the wide variety of Lomography cameras under one entry. But, there are too many to choose from. The Lomography movement is reinvigorating film photoraphy with excitement, fun, and a vibrant artistic sensibility. A host of colorful "toy" cameras enable photographers to create quirky, unusual, and sometimes unpredictable photos. Lomography 35mm fixed focus cameras come in traditional, fisheye, pinhole, bent corners, exposed sprocket, and multi-lens versions. They all enable shutterbugs to take long exposure pictures and multiple exposure pictures. You can also get colored accessory flashes to splash your subjects with different colors. Lomography cameras are affordable with online prices for the cameras like the famous Holga 135 and Lomography Diana Mini starting around $50.
  2.  Blackbird 35mm TLR camera – The Blackbird TLR camera is a low cost 35mm camera that evokes the medium format Twin Lens Reflex cameras of the past. However, by using a plastic body, the price of this toy camera comes in at around $100. With a TLR camera, you look down into a viewfinder on the top of the box-shaped camera. This makes the TLR an interesting choice for disceet street photography. Like the Lomography cameras, the Blackbird is great for taking long exposures or ghostly double exposures. Lower priced alternative toy TLR cameras include the Genuine Fotodiox DIY Lomo TLR Camera kit and Genuine Recesky 35mm Lomo TLR cameras kit.

    3. Vivitar 3800N 35mm SLR Camera
    – If you want a state of the art, fully, manual, 35mm SLR, the Vivitar 3800N might be for you. While there are many vintage cameras in the marketplace, you won't have to worry if grandpa's old camera still works when you have a brand new camera of your own. This Vivitar has long been the affordable work horse of film photography students and its a great choice for someone getting started in the medium. Once you learn the manual settings of a traditional 35mm camera, you'll be able to apply the lessons you learn to the byzantine menus of a digital. However, you might find you've fallen in love with film.

    4. Fujifilm Instax Camera / Polaroid Camera
    – Do you long to "shake it like a Polaroid picture?" Don't fret. Instant pictures are still around and doing well with new cameras from Fujifilm and Polaroid. If you want to liven up a party or family gathering, an instant photo camera is quite a conversation starter. Plus, you can hand a tangible picture to your subjects right after you take it. It's a guaranteed conversation starter. Check out the Polaroid 300 Instant Cameras or Fuji Instax Cameras.
  3.  Fujifilm Natura Classica Camera – This series of film camera is designed to work well in natural light conditions and extremely low light conditions with high speed film and without using a flash. This is an area where digital cameras don't generally perform well. While this camera isn't for bright sunlight, it's great for taking shots indoors or in the evening in natural light. The Natura Classica isn't officially sold in the U.S., but it is available via various sellers on ebay and Amazon. One

HDR Photography: How to Create High Dynamic Range Photos with Ease

There's something about a high dynamic range (HDR) photo that tends to make it stand out from the crowd. Instead of a single image, HDR photos can represent three separate images that have been blended together in a way that puts the best features of the subject matter on display.

If you're itching to jump in on the HDR trend, here are a few ideas on how to get your feet wet with the process – and do so quickly:

#1 – Hire experts to create your HDR photos

Maybe you don't feel like taking days or weeks to read reviews, watch tutorials, and learn the latest HDR software in order to manipulate your images to look their best. In that case, hiring experts who are well versed in HDR blending and correction of photos, like Smart Photo Editors, could be your best bet.

Lest you think it isn't worth the expense, consider how much various industries such as the home-selling market benefit from professional high dynamic range editing in order to permit photos to represent the true magnificence of certain houses as they truly exist – allowing the HDR images to reflect a view closer to what the human eye sees in person.

#2 – Play around with the HDR setting on your smartphone

If you don't need HDR photos for any serious subject matter, your cell phone might do. Maybe you just want the high dynamic range goodies for your selfies. Well, not all phones come equipped with an HDR option for the front camera, but there are certain cell phones that have been commended for having an advanced HDR feature at all.

The iPhone 5s has a native camera app that includes an auto HDR feature, and the Samsung Galaxy S5's camera comes with an advanced HDR option that makes the colors of your photos richer. Therefore, check your phone's features – and feel free to search online for great HDR photo-taking tips, like making sure to snap the pics when your subject is still, since your phone will be taking three photos in rapid succession. (That's unless you're going for the motion effect.)

#3 – Photoshop your HDR photos with Photoshop clones

Okay, let's say the HDR-produced pics from your cell phone just aren't cutting it. They don't look as good as some of those gorgeous images you see online with amazing nature photography panoramic vistas.

If you're technically inclined, you might want to play around with Photoshop's "Merge to HDR" feature, however, experts claim that Photomatix Pro is a better option due to its faster speed and greater image control. Conversely, pundits still give the Photoshop "Merge to HDR" feature its props because it's easier to learn – plus, if you already own the software, that's one less tool to purchase to fulfill your HDR dreams.

Whatever method you choose to have your HDR photos created, it will probably be worth the effort in the end, because excellently crafted high dynamic range photos have a way of making viewers do a double take.…

Are Computer Viruses Really a Threat?

There comes a time when almost everyone thinks twice about laying down the bucks for a Norton or MacAfee Upgrade. Is there really a threat out there, or is it all hype by the software companies trying to scare us into buying their software.

Sadly, the answer is yes, unequivocally yes, there are viruses out there, a lot of them; just last year the London Times reported that the number of active computer viruses had topped one million. And there are a lot of people busily developing new ones as you read this. Recent statistics have shown that as much as thirty percent of all e-mails sent across the Internet are launched by viruses that have taken over someone’s computer and e-mail account, quite often without the owner ever being aware. The situation is so dire that the FBI has set up a cyber division to “address cybercrime in a coordinated and cohesive manner.”

The good news is that most modern viruses are created for the purpose of stealing information, rather than destroying it; if you can call that good news. The bad news is that it has become so easy to create a virus now that virtually anyone can download the necessary tools, create a new virus and release it, all in just a few minutes time. This means, for example, someone visiting your home for a picnic perhaps, could get on your computer, write a virus and release it, leaving a trail back to you.

The question most people ask after finding their computer infected is, why? Why do people write viruses? Why do they unleash them on others? What is their deal?

Well, believe it or not, some studies have been done and it seems there are a variety of reasons a person might have for becoming a virus writer. The biggest seems to be because it gives people who feel they have no control over their lives a way of wresting some control back without having to actually do anything in their real lives. Another reason is because there are people who are politically motivated or are angry at Microsoft or other big software or computer companies. They want to hurt them, by hurting their customers. Finally, there are people out there who just want to feel superior to others by writing viruses that only infect if someone on the other end does something, like click on an attachment to an e-mail, or a picture on a web site. In these scenarios, the person is actually infecting themselves through their own actions.

Next, people generally want to know if they (their computer) are safe. The answer to this one is, it depends on how diligent they are. Just as people who wash their hands a lot and don’t touch stuff that people with biological viruses have touched, are less prone to catching a virus, so too are people who install anti-virus software on their computers, keep them up to date, don’t click on attachments in e-mails from people they don’t know and avoid questionable web sites, particularly those peddling smutty stuff. Also, it should be noted that it is true that those people using computers from Apple or other companies that run operating systems not from Microsoft are relatively safe simply because there are so few of them compared to the standard Windows, which means the virus writer won’t get much of a bang for their efforts.

Finally, what sort of things can happen to you and your computer if you do get infected? The answer depends on what sort of virus or attack you experience. …